The latest EVs are versatile in the way they charge. They can be fully charged at home and are even compatible with public charging stations being constructed across the nation. It means EVs need to be compatible with both kinds of current AC and DC power supplies with different output levels.
In a home, there is the 240V socket, which delivers 2.4 kWh of electricity but using dedicated wall box charges and robust wiring the charging power can be increased. Fast public chargers are available on the road with a supply of up to 350 kWh of DC power.
There are multiple charging plugs and standards used to accommodate AC 7 DC charging. There is also a type 1 to type 2 adapter available on Jucer that allows the EV battery to support charging at the old type 1 charging stations.
Type 1 AC charging [J1772 standard]
Type 1 is based on J1772 standards. It features a round plug comprising 5 pins that supply electricity via single-phase AC up to 240V. The 2-pins communicate information to the car about the maximum acceptable current by the EV and even ensure that the vehicle stays stable while charging. In Australia, the J1772 standard is used in Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Holden Volt, and Nissan Leaf [first-generation].
Type 2 AC charging [Mennekes standard]
Type 2 connector superseded the J1772 standard. The difference is that type 2 connectors support both single and three-phase AC power. This facilitates fast charging rates ranging from 43 kWh to 63A.
The type 2 connectors have a 7-pin structure including 5 large and 2 small pins. This allows the plug to become three-phase charging capable. The type 2 connector has replaced the type 1 AC plug. Both connector types are capable to be employed in all kinds of weather conditions rain]. There is the adaptor charging cable that allows an EV with a type-2 connector to plug into public charging stations that still use the type-1 charging system.
Modified AC charging
Tesla models S & X manufactured before 2019 use modified type 2 connectors. It resembles the regular Mennekes plug but uses two charging pins to allow DC charging on Tesla’s supercharger network.
The latest Tesla cars feature CCS combo 2 connectors beside the old modified type 2 standard. CCS combo 2 adaptors allow Tesla S and X car owners to use the public DC Tesla supercharging network.
A Combined Charging System or CCS and plug design means compatible with AC and DC power. CCS plug design comes in 2 designs – Combo 1 & Combo 2. The first is comprised of a type 1 AC connector including a 2-pin DC socket, while the latter includes a type 2 AC connector including a 2-pin DC socket.
DC charging alternative
CHAdeMO is an option for fast DC-only charging. It is a French phrase but has a Japanese expression connection. CHAdeMO has a global presence but is used in DC public supercharging stations in Australia as an option to CCS. Unlike CSS, the CHAdeMO cannot be easily combined with AC charging solution.